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Attack modes

TLDR

using a word list


hashcat -a 0 -m 0 hashes.txt wordlist.txt

using two word lists


hashcat -a 1 -m 0 hashes.txt words1.txt words2.txt

try every combination of characters


hashcat -a 3 -m 0 hashes.txt

limit attempts to 8 character lower case words


hashcat -a 3 -m 0 hashes.txt ?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?l

add a digit mask to the end of the word from a word list


hashcat -a 6 hashes.txt wordlist.txt ?d

-a 0

Try every word in the word list is used to guess the hash


# hashes.txt contains the list of hashes
# wordlist.txt contains list of words
# -a 0 specify the attack type
# -m 0 specify the hash type (md5)

hashcat -a 0 -m 0 hashes.txt wordlist.txt

-a 1

Create words from two word lists by combining them


# words1.txt and words2.txt contains words
# which will be used to create new words
# if words1 contains cat and
# words2 contains dog
# hashcat will create a word: catdog

hashcat -a 1 -m 0 hashes.txt words1.txt words2.txt

-a 3

Hashcat will try every combination of characters to crack the hash


# hashes.txt contains the list of hashes
# -a 3 specify a brute force attack
# -m 0 specify the hash type (md5)

hashcat -a 3 -m 0 hashes.txt

-a 3 with masks

If you know a word is exactly 8 characters long and contains only lower case alphabetical characters, you can specify a mask such as:

?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?l

This will reduce the search space

The full list of character masks is below


?l = abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
?u = ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
?d = 0123456789
?h = 0123456789abcdef
?H = 0123456789ABCDEF
?s = «space»!"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\]^_`{|}~
?a = ?l?u?d?s
?b = 0x00 – 0xff

an example with hashcat


hashcat -a 3 -m 0 hashes.txt ?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?l

-a 6

generate words from a mask and append them to the word list

if we have a word


cat

and we use the command


hashcat -a 6 hashes.txt wordlist.txt ?d

hashcat will generate words such as


cat0
cat1
cat2
...
cat9

-a 7

same as -a 6 but adds the mask in front of the word 0cat etc.

Rules

Read the rules page on hashcats website

Rules

Hash modes

Read about hash modes on hashcats website

Hash Modes